The 7th Dalai Lama - Kezang Gyatso
The name of the 7th Dalai Lama of Tibet can be spelled in two ways ---Kelsang Gyatso and Kezang Gyatso.
Kelzang Gyatso was born in Lithang, which is in Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province now. His reincarnation was due to a poem in which the the 6th Dalai Lama wrote "After going to Litang I would not be late in returning."
He was ordained by Ngawang Lobsang Tenpai Gyaltsen in Kumbum Monastery, for he can't be brought back to Lhasa immediately because of political turbulence.
Kelzang Gyatso showed his talents of profound wisdom when he was still very young. He became famous for his ability to compose verse spontaneously. Kelzang Gyatso (whilst a youth)was inspired by a sambhogakaya vision of the poet-monk Tsongkhapa, and travelled to central Tibet where he gave a sermon before thousands of people.
"Of all the Gyalwa Rinpoche [Dalai Lamas], we Tibetans probably respect the seventh, Kalzang Gyatso, most of all because of his saintliness, because he devoted his whole life to the Three Precious Ones, seeking refuge not for himself but for all his people."
With the invasion of the Dzungars in 1717, a pretender (promoted by the titular Tibet king--Lhabzang) to the position of the Dalai Lama was deposed and killed. This incident was widely approved by the people. But soon, they began to loot the holy palace of Lhasa, which invited a swift response from Emperor Kangxi in 1718. But this military expedition was crushed by the Dzungars near Lhasa.Under the ruling of Dzungar, many Nyingmapa and Bonpos were executed. Because it is said that reciting mantras will make the tongue become black or brown. Thus Tibetans visiting Dzungar officials were forced to stick their tongues out to be distinguished by the Dzungars whether a person recited constant mantras. This enabled the officials to pick out Nyingmapa and Bonpos who recited many magic-mantras. Sticking out one's tongue to show respect when you greet someone remains to be a habit until recent times.
Two years after the first one, Emperor Kangxi sent a second and larger expedition which expelled the the Dzungars from Tibet. As liberators, the troops received warm welcome from the local people. In 1721, Kelzang Gyatso who was in Kumbum can finally be brought to Lhasa and in 1721(or 1720) he was enthroned as the 7th Dalai Lama in the Potala Palace. The name--Kelzang Gyatso was given by the 5th Panchen Lama, from whom he also took the novice vows of monk-hood.He took the Gelong vows (full ordination) and received teachings from Lobsang Yeshi,who was the Abbot of Gyumey Monastery and also from the Abbot of Shalu Monastery, Ngawang Yonten on all the major Buddhist philosophical treatises and was the master in both sutra and tantra.Being a famous scholar with many books especially on the tantra, he distinguished himself from the 6th Dalai Lama in that he mainly dealt with spiritual themes.
In 1727, Emperor Kangxi sent two high commissioners(or ambans) and a garrison of Chinese troops to Lhsas and he also declared Tibet a protectorate.The walls of Lhasa were torn down and "Kham (with Batang, Litang, Tatsienlu, etc.) annexed to the Chinese province of Szechwan. The role as the Chinese protectorate was established and lasted until the end of the Qing Dynasty.
With the support of the Chinese government,Pho-lha-nas, an important Tibetan aristocrat, ruled Tibet during 1782-1747.In order to make it difficult for Kelzang Gyatso to influence the government,Pho-lha-nas moved him from Lhasa to Litang when the former was invited to visit Beijing. Pho-lha-nas's son succeeded him after his death and ruled Tibet until he was killed by the ambans in 1750.This incident provoked turbulence during which the the ambans were killed. The entering of the Chinese troops end the riots and restored order.
Removal of the Regents and establishment of the Kashag
Two versions -- the Chinese version and the Tibet version exist about the removal of the Regents and establishment of the Kashag.
The Chinese version are like this:
the Qianlong Emperor issued a 13-point decree according to which the Regent (Desi) was abolished and the real power of Tibet government were actually in the hands of a four-man Kashag, or Council of Ministers.The ambans were given to formal power and the Dalai Lama moved back to Lhasa to preside (in name) over the new government.
The Tibetan version goes like this:
When Kelzang Gyatso was forty-three,i.e.the year of 1751, he costituted the "Kashag" or council of ministers to administer the Tibetan government. Thus the the post of Regent(or Desi) was abolished, according to which the situation that too much power in one man's hand was put into an end.The Dalai Lama became the spiritual and political leader of Tibet.
After 1750, "The 'king' or governor of Tibet was no longer appointed by the Chinese government and the Dalai Lama was tactitly considered to be the sovereign of Tibet with the exception of Kham and Amdo on the one hand and, on the other, Ladakh — which was at first under Moghul suzerainty before being annexed by Kashmir after the Dogra war (1834–1842)".
In 1753, Kelzang Gyatso founded the Tse-School in the Potala Palace and built the new palace of Norling Kalsang Phodrang at the Norbulingka. "At the request of the Shabdung Rinpoche Jigmi Dagpa (Jigs med grabs pa, 1724–1761), spiritual and temporal ruler of Bhutan, Dalai Lama VII helped in the creation of a gold-and-copper monastery roof in Bhutan.
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